Arts Curriculum

Ana Mendieta

“My exploration through my art of the relationship between myself and nature has been a clear result of my having been torn from my homeland during my adolescence. The making of my silueta in nature keeps (make) the transition between my homeland and my new home. It is a way of reclaiming my roots and becoming one with nature. Although the culture in which I live is part of me, my roots and cultural identity are a result of my Cuban heritage.”

—Ana Mendieta


Ana Mendieta

Ana Mendieta (1948–1985). Ana Untitled (from the Silueta series), a.k.a. Silueta Muerta, August 1976. Chromogenic print, 23.65 x 18.57 cm. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Purchased with funds contributed by the Photography Committee 98.5234

About the artist

The photographs of Ana Mendieta document private sculptural performances enacted in the landscape to invoke and represent the spirit of renewal inspired by nature and the power of the feminine. In her Silueta series (begun in 1974), created on location in Iowa and Mexico, Mendieta carved and shaped her own figure into the earth to leave haunting traces of her body fashioned from flowers, tree branches, mud, gunpowder, and fire. A typology of Siluetas emerged, including figures with arms held overhead to represent the merging of earth and sky; floating in water to symbolize the minimal space between land and sea; and with arms raised and legs together to signify a wandering soul. By 1978, the Siluetas gave way to ancient goddess forms carved into rock, shaped from sand, or incised in clay beds.

An exile from Cuba, Ana Mendieta was sent from her native homeland to an orphanage in Iowa at age 12. This traumatic experience had a tremendous impact on her art. She felt that, through her art, her interactions with nature and work in the landscape would help facilitate the transition between her homeland and new home. By fusing her interests in Afro-Cuban ritual and the pantheistic Santeria religion with contemporary aesthetic practices such as Earthworks, Body art, and Performance art she maintained ties with her Cuban heritage.

Ana Mendieta

Ana Mendieta (1948–1985). Ana Untitled (from the Silueta series), a.k.a. Silueta Muerta, August 1976. Chromogenic print, 23.65 x 18.57 cm. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Purchased with funds contributed by the Photography Committee 98.5234

Ana Mendieta

Ana Mendieta (1948–1985). Untitled (from the Silueta series), July 1978. Chromogenic print, 25.4 x 18.57 cm. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Purchased with funds contributed by the Photography Committee 98.5235

Ana Mendieta

Ana Mendieta (1948–1985). Untitled (from the Silueta series), August 1978. Gelatin silver print, 20.32 x 23.65 cm. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Purchased with funds contributed by the Photography Committee 98.5239

  • What are some things you notice about these images?
  • What do the photographs tell us about Mendieta’s interests? What do you see that made you say that?
  • These photographs are referred to as the Silueta series—silueta is Spanish for “silhouette.” (Have students look up the word if necessary.) What is a silhouette and how does it relate to these images?
  • Mendieta’s work integrated many different categories of art including Body art, Earthworks, Performance art, and photography. How has she used her body to create these works? In what ways are these earthworks?
  • Mendieta used particular positions of her body to symbolize different ideas. (Have students identify each image as you cite an example.) For example, arms held overhead stood for bringing together land and sea; floating in water represented the land and sea.
  • Mendieta’s work was ephemeral, meaning it lasted only for a short time. The photographs recording her Earthworks and Body art are all that remain. Why would an artist create work that is ephemeral? If you were an artist, how would you feel about creating ephemeral work?
Ana Mendieta (1948–1985). Ana Untitled (from the Silueta series), a.k.a. Silueta Muerta, August 1976. Chromogenic print, 23.65 x 18.57 cm. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Purchased with funds contributed by the Photography Committee 98.5234
Ana Mendieta (1948–1985). Untitled (from the Silueta series), July 1978. Chromogenic print, 25.4 x 18.57 cm. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Purchased with funds contributed by the Photography Committee 98.5235
Ana Mendieta (1948–1985). Untitled (from the Silueta series), August 1978. Gelatin silver print, 20.32 x 23.65 cm. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Purchased with funds contributed by the Photography Committee 98.5239

Explore how body movements and poses can communicate or symbolize particular thoughts and feelings. Have students take turns demonstrating while the others guess the thought or feeling being conveyed.

Visual Arts

Working in pairs in front of a strong light source, have students recreate a silhouette of themselves by tracing an outline of their entire body on a large sheet of paper. Have them consider in advance their body position and what they would like it to communicate. Fill in your silhouette with natural materials that have special significance to you.

Visual Arts

Explore the concept of body art further with your students. What ways can they think of to use their body as tool for creating art? How have other people throughout history used their body as a “canvas” for creating art (for example, tattoos, scarification, body paint, molds)? Using a slab of clay have them create interesting imprints or molds with their hands or feet.

Visual Arts

Have students work in groups to conceptualize and create an ephemeral work of art. Document the work using photography or video.

Visual Arts

Recall the story of Mendieta’s traumatic childhood experience and its effect on her art. If students were forced to move and live in another country, what ties to their homeland might they choose to explore through their art? Discuss and have students write about ties significant to their own homeland or cultural heritage. How would they create a work of art that integrates those ties?

Visual Arts

Social Studies